No. 193 February 1999

 PEDIATRIC DRUG DOSAGE Have you looked at your prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) drug product container label? Prescription drugs are for an individual. Some of the OTC drug containers in one's medicine cabinet show a variety of label contents information in regard to children's dosage. Some are not for children, some provide some children's dosage information, and some specifically refer to children under 2 years of age. However, the FDA sees a lack of (pediatric) drug testing, drugs tests information, and drug dosage information and marketing labeling for children. [Paula Botestein "Why FDA is Encouraging Drug Testing in Children" FDA Consumer: A FDA Consumer Special Report: From Test Tube to Patient: New Drug Development in the United States, pages 63-66, 2nd Edition, 1995 (HE 40.4010/4:D49/995)]. Since both children and adults get the same diseases and take the same-marketed drugs and biologic products, there should be pediatric dosage information for children as well as adults for a more effective use of these drugs on children. Background for the FDA's new "Pediatric Plan" is found in the proposed rule "FDA 21 CFR Parts 201,312,314, and 601, Regulations Requiring Manufacturers to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of New Drugs and Biological Products in Pediatric Patients, Proposed Rule," Federal Register v. 62, no. 158, August 15, 1997, pages 43900-43916. The FDA's analysis of public comments, final version of its new regulations, and the "Pediatric Plan" are found in final rule: "FDA 21 Parts 201, 312, 314, and 601, Regulations Requiring Manufacturers to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of New Drugs and Biological Products in Pediatric Patients, Final Rule", Federal Register v. 63, no. 231, Wednesday December 2, 1998, pages 66632-66672 (AE 2.106:63/231)

BEGINNING TO INVEST IN STOCKS With the money in your pocket what happens next? Do you contact a some friend who knows, join an investing club, go to the yellow pages, go to the internet, or get some basic information in print which you can read and digest, or all of the above or none of the above? Information for Investors, On Opening and Maintaining An Account With A Stockbroker issued in 1998 by the Securities and Exchange Commission would tell you how to open an account, select a stockbroker, and provide a very good source of basic information. (SE 1.2:IN3). The Information for Investors is a very informative compilation of about 19 "II fact sheets" which are very helpful. Yet, the introduction to these fact sheets also provides some information about Internet access to the SEC, which I, as a beginning investor, did not find helpful at all. Next, go to the Internet and find What Every Investor Should Know at http://www.sec.gov/consumer/weisktc.htm . This July 1994 handbook issued by the SEC is one of the many current publications issued by the SEC Office of Investor Education and Assistance are found at SEC's Investor Assistance & Complaints Office website at http://www.sec.gov/invkhome.htm . There is a 1992 edition of What Every Investor Should Know at some depository libraries (SE 1.36:IN8/992) which may helpful, but since we now have a beginning, this is the end. Good luck on your investing, or at least your research/reading.

 CHILDREN, PRIVACY, AND THE INTERNET When children or adults share with their friends some social or economic facts about themselves or their family which usually go no further than these individuals. When surfing the Internet results in your making a purchase, joining a chat room, requesting a sales catalog, or making a on-line purchase what kind of information do you or your children provide? You know what information you will provide to the on-line marketing site, but do you know what your child has provided and what does the marketer do with this information? In April 1995 the Federal Trade Commission hosted its first public workshop on online information privacy on the Internet, which culminated in the June 1998, Privacy Online: A Report to Congress dated June 1998. The paper version (FT 1.2:P93) of this privacy report is only 62 pages, but has about 120 pages covering six appendices of tables, guidelines, and related information. This FTC survey documents the adult consumer activities, children's activities, and the online industry activities and plans in relation to the privacy of online information. The FTC site http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/index.htm will show you the HTML and PDF versions that you can easily download to your computer.

 PAYING ELECTRONIC BILLS ELECTRONICALLY This may not be shocking since this is only a further development of electronic direct deposit, but would be a difficult task for those people who don't have computers. Bills and statements are delivered over the Internet and customers use their computers to review the bills and statements and initiate payments. "Paying Electronic Bills Electronically" by Lawrence J. Radecki and John Wenninger, Current Issues in Economics and Finance v. 3, no. 1, January 1999, pages describe how the electronic billing and payment systems work and examine the factors to see if the high-volume billers and their customers are likely to benefit from such a system. Public utilities (gas, water, electric, etc) are a major portion of the 16 billion annually recurring household monthly bills that would be cheaper to send-out and pay electronically. The system would work and the savings in postage, paperwork, and manpower would be very significant. Some customers, billers, and banks are interested in e-mail billing but adequate acceptance of the system and implementation of the technology in the households are two major obstacles to be overcome. This rather unique discussion of electronic bills and payments includes a bibliography of nine books, articles, and website sources.

CERTIFICATES OF CONFIDENTIALITY - LEGALS SECRETS Can you keep a secret? Medical researchers may have always wanted to, but can do so legally only since 1970. Certificates of Confidentiality, which allows researchers to maintain confidentiality in regard to their research information and subjects, were authorized by 1970 amendments to the Public Health Act. In 1977, 1988, and 1996 there were revisions and expansions to enable these certificates to apply to a variety of types of research including cancer research. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) now issues certificates to protect the confidentiality of the cancer research subjects and the data/information they provide. Though research information may be voluntarily released under certain circumstances, involuntary disclosure is prohibited for the duration of the Certificate. As applicable to the NCI policies, more detailed information will be found in Certificates of Confidentiality, Background Information and Application Procedures. An application is included in the 33 paged publication issued in December 1998and is available from one of the contact people at http://www.nih.gov/grants/oprr/humansubjects/guidance/cert-con.htm . A copy of this publication will also be found in depository libraries under HE 20.3152:C33/3.

BETTING ON THE INTERNET "Internet gambling under fire" is a Gannett News Service newspaper article which appeared in the Kentucky Enquirer on February 11,1999. Gambling in America, (Y 3.G14.1/976-2, about 150 pages) and its 3 appendices (Y 3.G14:1/976-2/Appendix 1,2,3 which total about 2500 pages) was the last major study in 1976 by the Commission on the Review of the National Policy Toward Gambling . In 1999, the American Indian Tribes, Riverboats, the Casinos in Nevada, and the offshore businesses in the Caribbean and Latin America offer gambling websites. This makes it too easy for those American people who should not gambling to lose money. The 105th Congress failed to ban gambling on the Internet. The National Gambling Impact Study Commission has spent two years studying the impact of gambling on the Internet and the American people. The Commission is about to compile its final report to congress which will present the second and latest version of how gambling has affected the American public. If the Commission does not ban gambling, it will be up to Congress. Until the Commission's final report is issued, or some action is taken, one can find the Commission's "Research Agenda, Research Progress Reports, Research Subcommittee Reports, and the Staff reports on 'Lotteries' and 'Native American Gaming' " at http://www.ngisc.gov/research/research.html . I don't expect any developments before June 1999, what do you think?? Wanna bet???

NEW HEALTH CARE AND HMO QUALITY REPORT In 1998 all the Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) which participate in the MEDICARE responded to a national survey about the medical care and services provided to their 39 million members. This interactive database of HMO health care and service information available on the MEDICARE website and appears when you click on "Medicare compare" at http://www.medicare.gov . This first annual collection of HMO health care data measures and allows evaluation of the quality of the nation's health care providers. This interactive website provides Zip Code, state, county or specific HMO plan data for either 5 basic or all 24 information categories for each HMO, its benefits/costs, and quality of its service. You can research one plan, many, or all and then make comparisons. Downloading instructions and specifications seem clear and easy. One can search the website now, register your name in the "Guestbook", and be electronically informed about later database developments. This database and report will enable the HMOs to see how they compare to each other, how they rank, and how they could/should be improving. The HCFA anticipates the print version of this report being sent to every MEDICARE participant in November.

WEEDS, WEEDS, & WEEDS Someone once said that if you have a rose growing where it should not be, it can be considered a weed. Then there are the invasive plants also called weeds that have been bought into the United States with adverse consequences as we learned in the No.190, November 1998 issue of this Newletter. Have you heard about noxious weeds? The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service (APHIS) has a list of noxious weeds and seeds (of those weeds) which it considers harmful or injurious to crops, other useful plants, livestock, irrigation, navigation, fish or other wildlife, people, or the public health. These noxious aquatic, parasitic, and terrestrial weeds and seeds have been identified and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. These lists are continually updated with additions and deletions of species names as well as update information about taxonomic names and other editorial changes. It is the Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974 (7 U.S.C 2801 et seq.) and the Federal Seed Act of 1939 (7 U.S.C 1551 et seq.) which restricts the movement of noxious weeds and seeds into or through the United States. The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 2, Part 360.200 "Designation of noxious weeds" and Part 361.6 "Noxious weed seeds" are the locations of these lists. "Noxious Weeds; Update of Weed Lists, Proposed rule and notice of public hearing", Federal Register, v. 63, no. 233, December 4, 1998, pages 670110-67014 presents some of the latest APHIS proposed noxious weed and seed changes.

WHAT AND WHERE IS AN AIRPORT? An airport is a place where an airplane lands. The location and number of airports are two good questions. The 1998 Statistical Abstract of the United States, Table 1080: Civil Flying - Summary 1970 to 1996 cites the 1996 figure of 18, 292 airports which includes 4,596 heliports; 5,129 public airports; and 13,163 private airports. Locating and identifying all of these airports would be a major project and but those 13,163 private airports may not let us land our plane if they are not open for public use. Our primary research will concern those airports whose "data is on record with the FAA on all airports that are open to the public...". The National Ocean Service publishes the Airport/Facility Directory of airports in the conterminous United States (C 55. 416/2:). The public airports, heliports, and seaplane bases open to the public are listed alphabetically by associated city for every state except Alaska and Hawaii. It includes the airports of the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The directory's legend explains the 24 items of information (possible) for each airport, and the table of contents of each volume lists twelve sections of airport and related aviation information. The "Parachute Jumping Areas" section provide the names of the airports where you will find location, vor/vortac, maximum altitude, and hours/times information for the "parachute jumping areas" in each state. Kentucky has about 13 jump areas and related jump information for each. Each volume is revised and reissued every eight weeks. For those who want pictures, "Part 3: AERODROMES" of AIP, Aeronautical Information Publication, United States of America, 15th edition 28 January 1999 (TD 4.308/2:999) has about 80 pages of "maps" of the major airports' layout as to runways and other related airport facilities.

April 22, 1999

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