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Partial answer key for Warder


Here are some of the answers to the exercises in the early chapters of Warder's Introduction to Pali (1984 edition). I can't promise that these answers are right; they're just my answers. Use at your own risk.

I've used the same convention for diacritics that's in widespread use on the Internet. To wit: Long vowels are doubled (e.g., the Buddha's chief attendant is spelled "Aananda"); otherwise the diacritic mark precedes the letter it affects. Thus, "t-with-a-dot-under-it" (cerebral "t") is written as ".t"; "n-with-a-tilde-over-it" (palatal"n") is written as "~n"; and so on.


Exercise 1 (p. 15)

Pali into English

The "thus-gone" speaks
The lay disciple asks
The person speaks thus
The god is a non-human
I speak thus
The warrior goes away

The minister sits down
The ascetic is the "thus-gone"
The son (who is) the lay disciple sees
The priest approaches
The human lives
They speak thus

English into Pali

puriso vadati
samano tathaagato hoti
braahma.no pakkamati
devo eva.m vadati
samayo hoti
putto nisiidati

mahaamatta braahmano hoti
khattiyo upasa.mkamati
devo cavati
eva.m vadasi
eva.m vadatha
eva.m vadaama


Exercise 2 (pp. 19-20)

Pali into English

The "well-gone" speaks Dhamma
The lay disciple brings the bowl
The humans wish for good fortune
We go to the village
The ascetic comes
The Tathaagata is (the) "well-gone"

The priest asks the people
The gods fall (from their realm)
They speak the statement
The sons go forth
The being stands
They ask the ascetics the meaning

English into Pali

mahaamatta.m gacchanti
purisaa mahaamatte passanti
devo amanusso tathaagata.m upasamkamati

(p. 20)
sama.na.m dhamma.m pucchasi
sama.na.m sugata.m pucchaama
tathaagato pamaada.m pajjahati
upasikaa gaama.m pavisanti
sama.naa jhaayanti
kaayo titthati
agga.m phusati
sama.na.m attha.m pucchaama
pinda.m dadaati OR pinda.m deti


Exercise 3 (p. 22)

Pali into English

The Blessed One [nom.sing] teaches [3rd sing.pres] the doctrine [acc.sing]

You deceive [2nd.sing.pres] the king [acc.sing]

He accepts [3rd.sing.pres] the priest [acc.sing] as a lay follower [acc.sing]

The king [nom.sing] addresses [3rd.sing.pres] the people [acc.pl]

The priest [nom.sing] sees [3rd.sing.pres] God (Brahmaa) [acc.sing]

The king [nom. sing] (who is a) noble [nom.sing] asks [3rd.sing.pres] the minister [acc.sing]

The priests [nom.pl] speak [3rd.pl.pres] to the king [acc.sing]

The person [nom.sing] drops [3rd.sing.pres] the load (i.e., his load) [acc.sing]

Thus [ind] do they relate [3rd.pl.pres]

English into Pali

upaasakaa [nom.pl] bhagavantam [acc.sing] abhivaadenti [3rd.pl.pres]

hatthe [acc.pl] bandhati [3rd.sing.pres]

vipaaka.m [acc.sing] pa.tisa.mvedemi [1st.sing.pres]

raajaa [nom.sing] brahmana.m [acc.sing] aamanteti [3rd.sing.pres]

braahma.no [nom.sing] mahaamatto [nom.sing] bhagavanta.m [acc.sing]

eva.m [ind] vadati [3rd.sing.pres]

bhavo [nom.sing] paccayo [nom.sing] (hoti is optional)

attha.m [acc.sing] dhaareti [3rd.sing.pres]

bhagavaa [nom.sing] nivaaseti [3rd.sing.pres]

devaa [nom.pl] attha.m [acc.sing] mantenti [3rd.pl.pres]

bhagavaa [nom.sing] raajaana.m [acc.sing] pucchati [3rd.sing.pres]

vihara.m [acc.sing] pavisati [3rd.sing.pres]

vaada.m [acc.sing] nibbe.thesi [2nd.sing.pres] OR nibbe.thetha [2nd.pl.pres]

rajaa [nom.sing] manteti [3rd.sing.pres]

laabha.m [acc.sing] pajahati [3rd.sing.pres]


Exercise 4 (p. 27)

Pali into English

The lay-followers sat down.

At one time there was a king named Disampati.
There was [i.e., he had] a son, the prince named Re.nu.
The high priest was a brahman named Govindo.
There was [i.e., he had] a son, the young priest named Jotipalo.
The prince Re.nu and the young priest Jotipalo were friends.
Now Govindo the brahman died.
King Disampati grieved.

This is how it was.

English into Pali

braahma.no [nom.sing] pakkaami [3rd.sing.aor]

Bhagavaa [nom.sing] gama.m [acc.sing] paavisi [3rd.sing.aor]

Uttaro [nom] naama [ind] putto [nom.sing] ahosi [3rd.sing.aor]

Bhagavaa [nom.sing] Aananda.m [acc.sing] aamantesi [3rd.sing.aor]

Dhamma.m [acc.sing] desesi.m [1st.sing.aor]

khattiyaa [nom.pl] raajaputta.m [acc.sing] upasa.mkami.msu [3rd.pl.aor]

eva.m [ind] abhaasi.m [1st.sing.aor]

raajaputto [nom.sing] pabbaji [3rd.sing.aor]


Revised: Tue 9 November 1999
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/pali/answers.html