Step One: Selection and Definition of a Problem
A scientific inquiry originates from a problem or a question in need of a solution. In order to be subject to scientific investigation, a question must have one essential characteristic: it must be possible to formulate it in such a way that observation or experimentation in the natural world can provide an answer.
Once a problem has been identified, the next consideration is to formulate a hypothesis that provides a tentative explanation of the problem. Hypothesis is a prediction of what an outcome might be with the presence of certain conditions. In developing a hypothesis, the researcher needs to conduct a review of literature.
Hypothesis is a tentative statement of the outcome regarding the relationship between an Independent and Dependent variable.
Directional Hypothesis is a statement that declares the outcome in the presence of an independent variable. For example, if a researcher is interested in studying the effect of a review session on studentsí performance on an exam, the IV would be the review session. One group will be given the IV (review session) and the other group will not receive the IV. The researcher then administers the exam to both groups and analyzes the exam results to determine whether there was a difference in the performance of the two groups. The exam is the DV.
Null Hypothesis is a statement that declares that there will not be any difference on the DV in light of the presence of one group receiving an IV. The Null Hypothesis is also a statistical analysis that is carried out during the statistical analysis of the data.
The hypothesis is generated through inductive and deductive logic and is always explored through a search of the literature.
The IV is the variable that is of interest to the researcher in terms of having an effect on the DV. The IV can be manipulated as is the case in experimental studies or the IV has already occurred as is in the case of causal comparative studies. In both types of studies the researcher is exploring a causal relationship between the IV and DV.
Examples of Manipulated IV:
∑ Teaching Method
∑ Use of Technology
∑ Types of Feedback
∑ Classroom Arrangement
∑ Types of Assignments
∑ Learning Assistance Activities
Examples of Non Manipulated IV:
∑ Student Involvement in Extracurricular Activities
∑ Family Background
∑ Sibling Order
∑ Geographical Location
The DV is the outcome that the researcher is interested in studying.
Summary: Step one includes problem development, literature review, and hypothesis development.
StepTwo: Execution of Research Procedures.
The hypothesis is tested by collecting data relevant to it through observation, testing, and experimentation. Selection of subjects and selection of measurement instruments are determined.
Obtrusive Data Collection:
∑ Administer a Test for Data Collection
3. Physical Performance
4. Musical Performance
5. Creative Performance
Unobtrusive Data Collection: (readily or natural occurring data)
∑ ACT and SAT Test Scores
Step Three: Analysis of Data
Application of one or more statistical techniques.
Step Four: Drawing and Stating Conclusions. Confirm or reject the hypothesis