Psy 337 Writing Assignment
Instructions and Formatting Requirements
Read two articles from the attached reading list and write an Abstract and a Critical Analysis of each article.
The Abstract should be approximately 100-500 words in length and must include the main idea of the article. If it is an empirical research study, describe how it was conducted, who the participants were (state the number of subjects and the species), the main result(s) of the study and any theoretical or clinical conclusions that were drawn. If the article concerned a comprehensive review of several empirical studies, an ethical issue, or a biographical sketch of a learning theorist, then briefly summarize the major points raised by the author. In short, the Abstract section should include an objective, accurate, and concise summary of the content of the article as it was written from the authorÕs perspective.
Also, for each article write a Critical Analysis of approximately 100-500 words. Essentially, in this section I'm calling for your subjective reaction to the article. Being as concise and clear as possible, tell me what new insights you gained about the behavior of humans or animals from reading the article or tell me how the article helped to clarify concepts that were covered in other courses that you have taken. If the article was a report of an empirical research study, you might wish to tell me about problems or flaws you may have detected in the methodology, or tell me about hypotheses which you thought about after reading the article. If you objected to the ethics of the research, the Critical Analysis section is the place to elaborate on your sentiment. You might even comment on the clarity of the authorÕs writing style (this can help me make a judgment about retaining that paper for future assignments). In short, one or more topics can be discussed in the Critical Analysis section: Theory, methodology, ethics, improved understanding, or writing style mechanics are all avenues for discussion - but remember to keep the discussion clear and concise.
Course Point Value of Assignment.
Each article is valued at 10 course points (5/Abstract, 5/Critical Analysis). The total value of the assignment is worth 20 course points. The assignment will be graded on how clearly you express your ideas, how closely the assignment conforms to style and length requirements and your apparent level of understanding of the articles.
1.The assignment must be done on a word processor; do not turn in a hand- written copy. Use 1 inch margins all the way around. The font should be Times, Helvetica, New York or something similar to what you're reading now. Use 12 point size.
2. Double space every line of text.
3. Attach a face sheet to your summary which contains the following information, centered 3 inches down from the top edge. 5. In the upper right corner, about 1 inch from the top, type your last name, followed by the page number (the face sheet is page 1).
Psy 337 - 01 (or 02)
Abstracts for Animal Learning
Part 1 (or Part 2)
4. On the next page, identify each article that youÕre summarizing by numbering it. Cite the complete reference using APA style (see the example below). Note the proper way to punctuate, indent and italicize the reference information in the citation below.
Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional
reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14.
Abstract. (Label the Abstract section with the word Abstract (in bold print0, then begin your summary on the next line).
Critical Analysis. (Identify this section as Critical Analysis (in bold print) then begin your analysis on the next line). The analysis may read as follows:
The article by Watson and Rayner (1920) is a classic experiment
demonstrating that the emotion of fear can be classically conditioned in
children. On the positive side, the authors have contributed
important new insights into the role of the learning process in acquiring fears in
children, even before language is acquired. However, the experiment is
objectionable because of the usage of aversive, stressful
stimulation on an infant and because of Watson and RaynerÕs failure to
extinguish the conditioned fear response, which may have made Albert fearful
of similar furry objects later in life.
5. Fasten multiple pages with one staple in the upper left corner. Protect your assignment with a folder- a manila folder is preferred over the clear plastic type because it's sturdier and will keep the document clean and "pressed". However, when I collect your assignment I will ask you to remove the folder so be sure that multiple pages are securely stapled.
6. The finished assignment should appear neat, clean, and professional when you turn it in to me.
Psy 337 The Reading List
Attitudes and ethical issues of animal research
Dewsbury, Donald A. (1990). Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation. American Psychologist, 45, 315-327.
Gallup, G. G., & Beckstead, J. W. (1988). Attitudes toward animal research. American Psychologist, 43, (6), 474-476.
Miller, N. (1985). The value of behavioral research on animals. American Psychologist, 40, 423-440.
Classical conditioning of emotions
Jones, M. C. (1924). A laboratory study of fear: The case of Peter.
Journal of Genetic Psychology, 31, 308-315.
Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14.
Classical conditioning, the immune system and health
Ader, R. (2001). Psychoneuroimmunology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 94-98.
Overmier J.B. and Murison, R. (1997). Animal models reveal the ÒPsychÓ in the psychosomatics of peptic ulcers. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 180-184.
Overmier, J. B. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 23-33.
Visintainer, M. A., Volpicelli, J. R., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). Tumor rejection in rats after inescapable or escapable shock. Science, 216, 437-439.
Classical conditioning of taste aversions
Batsell, R.W. (2000). Augmentation: Synergistic conditioning in taste-aversion learning, Current Directions, 9 (5) , 164-168.
Bernstein, I.L. (1978). Learned taste aversions in children receiving chemotherapy. Science, 200, 1302-1303.
Gustavson, C. R., Garcia, J., Hankins, W. G., & Rusiniak, K.W. (1974). Coyote predation control by aversive conditioning. Science, 184, 581-583.
Sahley, C.L., Rudy, J.W., & Gelperin, A. (1981). An analysis of associative learning in the terrestrial mollusc. Higher order conditioning, blocking, and a transient US pre-exposure effect. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A, 144, 1-8.
Solomon, R. L. (1980). The opponent-process theory of acquired motivation.
American Psychologist, 35 , 691-712.
Classical conditioning of drug tolerance
Siegel, S. (1984). Pavlovian conditioning and heroin overdose: Reports by overdose victims. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 428-430.
Siegel, S., & Ellsworth, D. W. (1986). Pavlovian conditioning and death from apparent overdose of medically prescribed morphine: A case report. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24, 278-280.
Siegel, S., Hinson, R. E., Krank, M. D., & McCully, J. (1982).
Heroin "overdose" death:Contribution of drug-associated environmental cues. Science, 216, 436-437.
-Self-recognition and Theory of Mind
Gallup, G. G. (1977). Self-recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness. American Psychologist, 32, 329-338.
Gallup, G. G. (1970). Chimpanzees: self-recognition. Science, 167, 86-87.
Povinelli, D. J. & Bering, J. M. (2002). The mentality of apes revisited. Current Directions, 11, 115-119.
Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Chimpanzee problem-solving: A test for
comprehension. Science, 202, 532-535.
Teuber, Marianne L. (1994). The founding of the primate station, Tenerife, Canary Islands. American Journal of Psychology, 107 (4), 551-581.
Weir, Alex, A.S., Chappell, Jackie, & Kacelnik, Alex. (2002). Shaping of hooks in New Caledonian Crows. Science, 297, 981.
-Addition and subtraction in infants
Wynn, Karen. (1992). Addition and subtraction in human infants. Nature, 358, 749-750.
Menzel, E.W. (1973). Chimpanzee spatial memory organization. Science, 182, 943- 945.
Olton, D. S. (1979). Mazes, maps, and memory. American Psychologist, 34 , 583- 596.
Tolman, E.C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189- 208.
-Trouble forming concepts in Alzheimer patients
Morris, R. (1987). Identity matching and oddity learning in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer-type dementia. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39B, 215-227.
Thorndike, Skinner and the law of effect
Breland, K. & Breland, M. (1961). The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist, 16, 681-684.
Chance, Paul. (1999). Thorndike's puzzle boxes and the origins of the experimental analysis of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 72, 433- 440.
Donahoe, J. W. (1999). Edward Thorndike: The selection connectionist. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 72, 451-454.
Skinner, B.F. (1948). Superstition in the Pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 168-172.
-The law of effect and behavior modification therapy
Bacon-Prue, A., Blount, R., Hosey, C., & Drabman, R. S. (1980). The public posting of photographs as a reinforcer for bed making in an institutional setting.
Behavior Therapy, 11, 417-420.
Carr, E. G., & McDowell, J. J. (1980). Social control of self-injurious behavior of
organic etiology. Behavior Therapy, 11, 402-409.
Kazdin, A. E. & Benjet, C. (2003). Spanking Children: Evidence and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, (3), 99-103.
Singh, N. N., Dawson, M. J., & Gregory, P. R. (1980). Suppression of chronic
hyperventilation using response-contingent aromatic ammonia.
Behavior Therapy, 11, 561-566.
Inheritance of learning ability
Innis, Nancy K. (1992). Tolman and Tryon: Early research on the inheritance of the ability to learn. American Psychologist, 47, 190-197.
Tryon, R.C. (1940). Genetic differences in maze-learning ability in rats. Yearbook of the National Society for Studies in Education, 39, 111-119.
Pennisi, Elizabeth. (1999). Are our primate cousins "conscious"? Science, 284, 2073- 2076.
Vogel, Gretchen. (1999). Chimps in the wild show stirrings of culture. Science, 284, 2070-2073.
Whiten, A., Goodall, J., Mcgrew, W.C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Suglyama, C., Tutin, C.E.G., Wrangham, R.W., & Boesch, C. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682-685.